English Language Learner Program

Glossary of Bilingual/ESL Education Terms and Acronyms



Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (social language)


Cognitive/Academic Language Proficiency (academic language skills)


Code Switching
The use of two languages interchangeably in speech and in writing often due to lack of fluency in L1 or L2, or in both languages


English Language Learner


English Proficiency Designation Categories:

  • NEP — Non-English Proficient
  • LEP — Limited English Proficient
  • FEP — Fluent English Proficient




IDEA Language Proficiency Test (Oral, Reading, Writing)


First language/home language; first language learned by a student


Second language learned by a student (in our case, usually English)


Language Dominance
The language spoken most proficiently by the student.


Language Proficiency
The level of skill (R, W, L, S) in the use of a particular language.




LAU Category Codes
Language proficiency designations A, B, C, D & E for students coming from language backgrounds other than English:

  • A — monolingual, speaker of a language other than English
  • B — predominantly speaker of language other than English
  • C — bilingual; equal proficiency in two languages
  • D — predominantly English proficient with some language other than English
  • E — speaker of English only, but has a language background other than English


Locus of Control (sociocultural checklist)

How a person attributes responsibility for events and actions... Am I the one to cause (internal) or is something or someone else (external) that is causing something to happen to me?


LOC A: Language Observation Checklist completed by English-speaking teacher.
LOC B: Language Observation Checklist (completed by bilingual speaker of a student's home language - other than English


Mixed Language (Code Switching)
When a person combines English and the native language as they speak; not separating or distinguishing one language from the other in speech.


Primary Home Language Other Than English


Primary Language
The language the student learned first and used most frequently in the early stages of language development.


Parent Questionnaire (to be completed by parents/guardians of student)


Student Intervention Team

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